Plantation Pines

Pinus elliotti

Beams
Boat building
Boxes and crates
Bridge beams
Bridge construction
Bridge joists
Construction
Excelsior
Hardboards
Heavy construction
Joists
Millwork
Mine timbers
Novelties
Pallets
Particleboard
Piling
Plywood
Pulpwood
Rafters
Railroad cars
Railroad ties
Rough construction
Rustic furniture
Shipbuilding
Silos
Stringers
Structural plywood
Structural work
Veneer
Warehouse Construction
Woodenware


Numerical Values

     
Category Green Dry Unit
Bending Strength
Crushing Strength (Perp.)
Max. Crushing Strength
Impact Strength
Stiffness
Work to Maximum Load
Hardness
Shearing Strength
Toughness
Specific Gravity
Weight
Density (Air-dry)
Radial Shrinkage (G->OD)
Tangential Shrink. (G->OD)
Volumetric Shrink. (G->OD)
8700
530
3820
--
1530
10
--
1680
265
0.54
58
43
5 %
8 %
12 %
16300
1020
8140
--
1980
13
--
--
--
0.59
43
--
--
--
--
psi
psi
psi
inches
1000 psi
in-lbs/in3
lbs
psi
in-lbs
--
lbs/cu.ft.
lbs/cu.ft.
--
--
--

Species Distribution

Countries
United States
South Africa
Latin America

Physical and Environmental Profile

Environmental Profile
The conservation status of this species within its natural growth range has not been officially assessed.

 

Distribution
Although it was originally named Pinus elliottii , Slash pine is reported to have been called Pinus caribaea at one time and P. heterophylla at another. The species is reported to occur in the Coastal Plains, from the southern part of South Carolina to southern Florida, and west to southeastern Louisiana. The tree usually grows in lowland areas such as swamps or slashes, including poorly drained sandy soils, and is also found on uplands and old fields. It often grows in pure stands as a subclimax species after fires, as well as in mixed forests. Slash pine prefers to grow mostly near sea level, but is also be found in localized areas at elevations of up to 500 feet (152 m).

Product Sources
It is currently unknown whether material from this species is obtainable from sustainably managed or other environmentally responsible sources, but Slash pine is reported to be widely cultivated in forest plantations, both inside and outside its natural range.

Slash pine is considered an important species for timber production, and is a primary source of lumber for naval stores, as well as a variety of other uses.

Southern yellow pines which include Slash pine (P. elliottii), Longleaf pine (P. palustris), Loblolly pine (P. taeda), and Shortleaf pine (P. echinata) are reported to be very difficult to separate and are usually mixed together and marketed on the basis of density.

Tree Data
The tree is typically large, with a narrow, regular, and pointed crown. It attains a height of 80 to 90 feet (24 to 27 m), with a trunk diameter of about 24 to 30 inches (60 to 75 cm).

Sapwood Color
The sapwood is whitish to yellowish, orange-white, or pale yellow. Its width is reported to be variable.

Heartwood Color
The heartwood is described as light yellow, orange, and red. Southern yellow pines are reported to have many characteristics that are similar to Douglas fir.

Grain
The grain is described as straight, and uneven. It is closed, and Southern yellow pine timbers are reported to be often highly figured, with patterns ranging from clear to knotty. Contrast between transition from earlywood to latewood is described as striking in its abruptness.

Texture
The wood is medium textured.

Odor
The wood has a distinct non-descriptive resinous odor, but no characteristic taste.

Drying Defects
Excessive drying temperatures may cause checks, splits, and brown sapwood stains.

Kiln Schedules
Regular T13 - C6 (4/4); T12 - C5 (8/4)
Schedule L (4/4) United Kingdom
Different kiln schedules are recommended for very high quality stock.

T/R Ratio - 1.60
This indicator is more meaningful if it is used together with other drying information and actual shrinkage data in the tangential and radial directions. (Refer to the Numerical Values window).

Natural Durability
Slash pine is reported to have moderate resistance to decay, but it can be easily treated with chemical preservatives which allows it to used in exterior applications.

Resistance to Impregnation
The wood has a cellular structure that allows deep, uniform penetration, and makes incising before treatment unnecessary.

Resin Content
The wood is resinous.

Cutting Resistance
The timber is reported to have moderate cutting resistance. Saws with long pitch have been recommended.

Blunting Effect
Blunting effect on cutting edges is reported to be moderate.

Planing
The timber is reported to respond fairly well to ordinary machine tools, with moderate cutting resistance. It planes, turns, moulds, bores, and mortises fairly well to yield generally clean finishes. High resin content may be troublesome since cutters tend to gum-up.

Gluing
The material is reported to glue without difficulty.

Nailing
Nail-holding properties are reported to be very good.

Screwing
Screw-holding characteristics are rated as very good.

Sanding
The timber is reported to have good sanding properties, but frequent sandpaper changes are usually necessary because of clogging by resin.

Polishing
Most finishing treatments are reported to be fairly satisfactory, and a durable finish is recommended to help minimize wear in material used for flooring.

Staining
The wood is reported to respond fairly satisfactorily to most finishing treatments.

Varnishing
The wood takes varnishes satisfactorily.

Painting
The wood is reported to have satisfactory painting characteristics.

Steam Bending
The timber is reported to be unsuitable for steam bending applications because of its high resin content.

Response to Hand Tools
The timber is reported to respond fairly well to hand tools, with moderate cutting resistance.

Strength Properties
Bending strength is high. Maximum crushing strength, or compression strength parallel to grain, is also high. Weight and density are high.

Reference Sources

Numerical Data Source
USDA. 1987. Wood Handbook - Wood as an Engineering Material, Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 72, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.

Descriptive Data Source
Panshin, A.J. and C. deZeeuw. 1980. Textbook of Wood Technology, 4th Edition. McGraw-Hill Series in Forest Resources. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Mirov, N.T. 1967. The Genus PINUS. The Ronald Press Company, New York. LCC Card No. 67-14783.

Kaiser, Jo-Ann. Wood of the Month: Southern Pine - The Commercial Name for 10 Species. Wood & Wood Products, June, 1991.

Little, E.L. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees - Eastern Region. Published by Arthur A. Knopf, New York.

NWFA. 1994. Wood Species Used in Wood Flooring. Technical Publication No. A200. National Wood Flooring Association, Manchester, MO.

Boone, R.S., C.J. Kozlik, P.J. Bois and E.M. Wengert. 1988. Dry Kiln Schedules for Commercial Woods: Temperate and Tropical. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, GeneralTechnical Report FPL-GTR-57, Madison, Wisconsin.

USDA. 1988. Dry Kiln Operators Manual, Preliminary Copy. Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.

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